The Lost Potential of Jersey City’s 111 1st Street

Author David Goodwin discusses the story and legacy of 111 1st Street, chronicled in his new book, Left Bank of the Hudson.

111 first street jersey city artisits
Salvaged bricks from the 111 1st Street’s demolition sit stacked on the now vacant site

On Christopher Columbus Drive, among the row of murals between Barrow and Grove Streets, there is a poster that reads “111 1st Street”. It’s a temporary poster, adhered to the plywood that currently covers the ongoing expansion to South House Restaurant, and it momentarily connects the history of Jersey City to its present.

The story of 111 1st Street is detailed in David Goodwin’s new book, Left Bank of the Hudson: Jersey City and the Artists of 111 1st Street. Goodwin, a past chairman of the Jersey City Historic Preservation Commission, became interested in 111 1st Street shortly after he moved to Jersey City and witnessed what he saw as an architecturally interesting building being torn down. Left Bank of the Hudson chronicles the history of the P. Lorillard Tobacco Company, the artist community that sprung up in Jersey City’s rundown, post-industrial zone, the legal and political fight to save 111 1st Street and its community, and ultimately, the building’s demolition.

David Goodwin left bank of the hudson book
Author David Goodwin stands at the site of the once-thriving community

111 1st Street, located in the Powerhouse Arts District, is the site of the former P. Lorillard Tobacco Company warehouse that was built in 1866. The warehouse, until its destruction, served as a reminder of Jersey City’s industrial heyday. The Lorillard plant ceased operations in 1956 and three decades later, artists began leasing the vacant commercial space as studios.

At the time, Jersey City was considered an ancillary arts scene to Manhattan and even Hoboken, and Goodwin explains in Left Bank of the Hudson, Jersey City still had a reputation for danger, poverty, and urban blight. Still, 111 1st Street was marketed solely to artists and it is estimated that 400 artists were working within walking distance of the building.

“I see artists as the canaries in the coal mine twice over,” explains Goodwin. “So they’re the first sign of change coming and then they’re usually the first pushed out.”

A clear sign of change occurred when New Gold Equities purchased two buildings – 110 1st Street and 111 1st Street – for $3.4 million in bankruptcy court in 1991. At first, the creation of an arts district in downtown Jersey City seemed likely; the city passed the WALDO ordinance in 1996 that intended to create an arts district. But by 2001, something shifted. Tensions between the artists and 111 owner, Lloyd Goldman, began to rise. At this point in the book, Goodwin dives into the interplay between the 111 artists and Goldman, the legal battles, the insular municipal politics and the gentrification process that ultimately culminated with the demolition of 111 1st Street in 2007.

The loss of 111 1st Street and its community has had a lasting impact on Jersey City. “111 could have been the beacon to draw artist in large numbers to Jersey City to Hudson County New Jersey, instead of just to Brooklyn,” says Goodwin. “I think if this building was saved in some shape and this community saved in some shape, this really could have been the Powerhouse Arts District, which it’s not today.”

111 first street jersey city artisits 2Today, 111 1st Street is a parking lot and the bricks from 111 sit, precariously stacked behind fencing on the corner of Bay and Warren Streets; they serve no apparent purpose.

At least one-quarter of the 111 lot is a staging ground for construction crews still working on The One, the luxury highrise that is now at the site of 110 1st Street. A strip of grass on Bay Street that runs parallel to Modera Lofts has become an informal dog park. (Modera Lofts, the former Butler Brothers building, now almost ironically markets artist’s studios.)

“It’s more of a mystery to me as why [the 111 lot] is not being developed,” says Goodwin. “It’s very weird to me that it’s just sitting there. In some ways, if you just build something at least that’ll be a better end to the story than letting it sit there because then it seems it was all for nothing.”

The visuals of the empty lot are striking as new developments on Bay Street and Marin Blvd gain more height every day. The Powerhouse – itself an iconic Jersey City warehouse – sits adjacent to the empty lot, falling into disrepair. The iconic smokestacks were removed in 2013 and there is speculation that the Powerhouse cannot be preserved. (If the Powerhouse cannot be saved, Goodwin says, “it sort of raises the question of why is this neighborhood important because it’s called the Powerhouse Arts District.”)

For newer residents, 111 is a largely unknown story. Thus the story of 111 1st Street becomes an illustrative lesson for Jersey City to continue preserving its history and to make a place for the arts going forward. “I think there is a general sense among certain segments of the population that [Jersey City]’s changing rapidly and if places aren’t preserved for artists and art in our city very soon, we might be living in a city we don’t want to be in,” says Goodwin.

Beyond Jersey City, the story of 111 resonates, especially in other post-industrial cities facing their own development and growth. “There’s a universality here,” says Goodwin. “People want to preserve what makes their cities interesting – whether that’s a building or a community – and they see a building such as 111 1st Street as what makes a place worth caring about. One of the reasons why people keep moving back to cities is they want to feel that connection to a story larger than themselves.”

Though the demolition of 111 1st Street is a great failure in Jersey City’s history, it offers a guide for other communities in a similar situation. “That would be a great legacy for the artists of 111,” says Goodwin, “if their loss could be others victory.”


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  1. Seems a bit of research could and the Question on No apparent reason that the bricks remain there. As well as looking further into the zoning and height restriction of the arts area. Neither those that drew up the Arts district or Mr Goldman and his people are fools. However to overlook the obvious is a big mistake.
    What I want to know is what the Powerhouse and other building have that hideous color of pastel yellow on them talk about devaluing property it is quite easy isn’t it.

  2. Obviously the author doesn’t know the true history of the site otherwise there would be no question as to why it’s not yet developed…. Amazing people can publish books without all the facts and that is how rumors are spread.

  3. They have proposal for 500 units to be built in that area. If people would actually take the time to view Jersey City Development map, they’d know where everything is going. The development map has been around for decade(s). Do the research this sight and many others have recent and future information. There is a lot planned for the area including another pedestrian plaza, office space and businesses.

  4. I lived there from 1992-2000. I’d been invited by a NJ state trooper to a party given by a gay motorcycle gang who had the whole top floor facing the WTC.

    The goods stuff included amazing sculptor Christopher Whittey, painter Margo Pelletier, young Russian DJs who turned me on to Pelevin, avant-garde horror actress Tina Krauss, light artist Norman Francoeur, synthesist Kurt Steele, the indie band Spent, the furniture designer Joe Stone, sculptor Maggie Enz, raves that went on for 3 days straight including one live slave auction and a performance of Genet’s The Blacks, it goes on and on. Where are all these people?

    The bad stuff included schizophrenic tenants, constant threat of eviction by the building manager Ralph, fraudsters like the Japanese woman selling her urine as a healing lotion (ugh) and the bloody and highly publicized attacks perpetrated by a young mobster that led directly to the shutdown. Also the assholes who created the brand “Powerhouse Arts District” with no intention other than raising their own property values. They did NOTHING to support the artists at 111.

    Well Penny Arcade did say you can’t have art without crime. And we had those gloriously empty and dark streets to ourselves for a while.

  5. being an artist is a choice, not a hardship. it is a choice that comes with a warning, the colloquial phrase “the starving artist.” we all know this. artists in particular know this. if you get to live somewhere that has great economic potential for a while at a discount, you should be thankful and grateful, not whine when the people who allowed you to be there at all, the people who chose careers in business and not artistry, cash in. you were educated enough when you chose your own route, you have no say in the matter now.

  6. To Dan Coleman: you’re in error about those who created the “brand” the Power House Arts District. It was the invention of Charles Kessler who worked very hard to make 111 First street a reality. He’s been maligned by the likes of you and other who’ve falsely claimed that Charles Kessler was somehow profiting from being involve with saving 111 first street. It’s bullshit.. Kessler NEVER owned property in the Art’s district but he was a force in trying to save 111 First Street. He and his wife put a lot of work and energy into saving 111 First Street. Their reward: both had a nervous breakdowns when it was over. How do I know all this stuff? My name is Bill Rodwell and I was the very active President of the 111 First Street Tenants organization. Get your history straight, Dan.


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